history meme. five assassinations: Julius Caesar, by Senators of Rome
15 MARCH 44BC. On the Ides of March, Julius Caesar entered the Senate. There he was stabbed to death by around forty senators, members of the ruling class and paragons of education and intellect in the society of Ancient Rome. Only twenty-one names of these conspirators, self-styled as “The Liberators”, survive history and nearly all of them staunchly defended the so-called sancitity of the Republic threatened, allegedly, by the quick rise to tyrannical power of Julius Caesar. However, the death of the “tyrant” had also led to the end of the Republic for which he was killed. Civil war broke out, with Mark Antony on one side and Octavian, Caesar’s legal heir, on the other. Eventually, Mark Antony fled to Egypt, where he would be defeated by Octavian. Octavian became Augustus, the first Emperor and founder of the Roman Empire, and ushered in the era of Pax Romana.
Originally, Mark Antony and Octavian were part of the ruling triumvirate with Lepidus. When the triumvirate disbanded, Mark Antony and Octavian had their civil war.
|—||Cicero (via rasputin)|
The traditional method of extracting gold from other materials, first discovered more than two hundred years ago, involves cyanide. Cyanide is very toxic. But now, scientists have stumbled upon a method of extracting gold by using alpha-cyclodextrin, a carbohydrate that can be derived from corn starch. The gold forms tiny nanowires. From a press release:
The supramolecular nanowires, each 1.3 nanometers in diameter, assemble spontaneously in a straw-like manner. In each wire, the gold ion is held together in the middle of four bromine atoms, while the potassium ion is surrounded by six water molecules; these ions are sandwiched in an alternating fashion by alpha-cyclodextrin rings. Around 4,000 wires are bundled parallel to each other and form individual needles that are visible under an electron microscope.
This method can be used, among other things, to recycle gold from consumer electronics. Hopefully they can find a way to make it work for ores, since the initial mining still accounts for the majority of gold cyanidation, and consequent environmental danger. One of the co-authors of this paper, Dennis Cao, is on reddit answering questions about the research.
The early 1960s were defined by the visions of the future. Check out these Motorola ads from 1961.